تاثیر پیاده‌روی با دو شدت متفاوت بر تعداد لکوسیت‌ها، سطوح پلاسمایی فاکتور نکروز تومور-‌آلفا و ترکیب‌بدن در زنان سالمند غیرفعال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی ورزشی، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رشت، گیلان، ایران

2 استاد، گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، گیلان، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رشت، گیلان، ایران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف  در زنان مسن، افزایش برخی از نشانگرهای پیش‌التهابی، از عوامل خطر برای توسعه بیماری‌ها است. مطالعه حاضر، به بررسی تأثیر۱۲هفته پیاده‌روی با دو شدت متفاوت بر عوامل التهابی در زنان مسن پرداخته است.
مواد و روش‌ها سی زن مسن تمرین‌نکرده (۶۰-۷۰ ساله) به صورت تصادفی به سه گروه پیاده‌روی با سرعت متوسط (۱۱ نفر)، گروه پیاده‌روی سریع (۱۰ نفر) و گروه شاهد (۹ نفر) تقسیم شدند. گروه پیاده‌روی سرعت متوسط، با شدت ۵۰ تا ۵۵ درصد حداکثر ضربان‌ قلب ذخیره (HRRmax) و گروه پیاده‌روی سریع، با شدت ۷۰ تا ۷۵ درصد HRRmax پیاده‌روی کردند. هر دو گروه پیاده‌روی ۱۲ هفته و ۳ جلسه در هفته، از ۳۰ تا ۶۰ دقیقه تمرین کردند و گروه شاهد، بدون تمرین باقی ماند. حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی (VO2max)، ترکیب‌بدن، تعداد لکوسیت‌ها (WBC) و سطوح پلاسمایی فاکتور نکروز تومور-‌آلفا (TNF-α)، قبل و بعد از دوره مطالعه اندازه‌گیری شد. برای تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون‌های آنالیز واریانس یک‌راهه، آزمون ‌شفه و آزمون تی‌ همبسته استفاده شد (P≤0/05).
یافته‌ها VO2max، به طور معنی‌داری در گروه پیاده‌روی سریع افزایش یافت. در هر دو گروه تمرین، وزن بدن، درصد چربی (    1../.p =)، شاخص توده بدنی (3../.p=) به‌ طور معنی‌داری کاهش و درصد عضله (.../۰=) افزایش یافت. درصد چربی ‌احشایی فقط در گروه پیاده‌روی سریع، کاهش معنی‌داری یافت (28./.p=). همچنین در مقایسه با سطوح پایه، گروه پیاده‌روی سریع، کاهش معنی‌داری را در تعداد WBC نشان داد (4../۰=) تفاوت معنی‌داری در سطوح پلاسمایی TNF-α میان گروه‌ها وجود نداشت.  
نتیجه‌گیری نتایج نشان داد که برنامه پیاده‌روی منظم می‌تواند بر ترکیب‌ بدن در زنان سالخورده، تأثیر بگذارد اما ممکن است در کاهش نشانگرهای التهابی سیستمیک، مؤثر نباشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of walking programs of two different intensities on leukocyte counts, plasma levels of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and body composition in sedentary elderly women

نویسندگان [English]

  • fateme falah 1
  • farhad rahmani nia 2
  • ramin shabani 3
  • zahra Hojati Zidashti 3
1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Guilan, Iran
2 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Guilan University, Guilan, Iran
3 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Guilan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: In aged women, elevated levels of some proinflammatory markers are risk factors for the development of diseases. The present study investigated the effect of 12-week walking at two different intensities on inflammatory factors in elderly woman.
Materials and Methods: Thirty untrained elderly women (60—75 years) randomly divided into three groups. Moderate tempo walking group (MTWG, n=11), Brisk walking group (BWG, n=10), and the control group (CG, n=9). The MTWG, walked at 50—55% maximum heart rate reserve (HRRmax) and the BWG walked at %70-75 HRRmax. Both walking groups trained 12 weeks, 3 sessions per week, starting from 30 to 60 minutes and the CG remained untrained. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), body composition, leukocyte counts (WBC) and plasma levels of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), were measured before and after the study period. To analyze the data, oneway analysis of variance, Scheffe test and dependent t-test was used (P≤0.05).
Results: VO2max, increased significantly in BWG. Body weights, percent body fat (p =0.000), body mass index (p = 0.003) significantly decreased, and percent muscle (p = 0.000) increased in both exercise groups. Percent visceral fat (p = 0.028) significantly decreased in BWG. Also, BWG showed a significant reduction in WBC counts compared to baseline levels (p = 0.004). There were no significant differences in the plasma levels of TNF-α between the groups.
Conclusion: The results showed that regular walking program can affect body composition in elderly women, however, it may not be effective in reducing systemic inflammatory markers. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aged, Body Composition
  • Walking
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Leukocytes
[1]. Chmielewski P. Leukocyte count, systemic inflammation, and health status in older adults: a narrative review. AnthropologicAl review. 2018;81(1):81-101.
[2]. Calvani R, Marini F, Cesari M, Buford TW, Manini TM, Pahor M, et al. Systemic inflammation, body composition, and physical performance in old community‐dwellers. Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle. 2017;8(1):6977.
[3]. Tchkonia T, Morbeck DE, Von Zglinicki T, Van Deursen J, Lustgarten J, Scrable H, et al. Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence. Aging cell. 2010;9(5):667-84.
[4]. Shabani R, Yosefizad L, Fallah F. Effects of eight weeks of endurance-resistance training on some inflammatory markers and cardiovascular endurance in sedentary postmenopausal women. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2017;20(1):23-30.
[5]. Petersen AMW, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. Journal of applied physiology. 2005;98(4):1154-62.
[6]. Wedell-Neergaard A-S, Krogh-Madsen R, Petersen GL, Hansen ÅM, Pedersen BK, Lund R, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the metabolic syndrome: Roles of inflammation and abdominal obesity. PloS one. 2018;13(3):e0194991.
[7]. Colbert LH, Visser M, Simonsick EM, Tracy RP, Newman AB, Kritchevsky SB, et al. Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2004;52(7):1098-104.
[8]. Doostdar M, Fathei M, Hejazi K. The Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Leptin, Interlukin-6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Levels in Inactive Elderly Women. Pathobiology Research. 2017;19(4):13-25.
[9]. Santos Rd, Viana VAR, Boscolo RA, Marques V, Santana MGd, Lira FSd, et al. Moderate exercise training modulates cytokine profile and sleep in elderly people. Cytokine. 2012;60(3):731-5.
[10]. Gleeson M. Effects of exercise on immune function. Sports Science Exchange. 2015;28(151):1-6.
[11]. Gomes W, Lacerda A, Brito-Melo G, Fonseca S, RochaVieira E, Leopoldino A, et al. Aerobic training modulates T cell activation in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2016;49(11).
[12]. Buyukyazi G, Ulman C, Taneli F, Esen H, Gozlukaya F, Ozcan I, et al. The effects of different intensity walking programs on serum blood lipids, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in premenopausal women. Science & Sports. 2010;25(5):24552.
[13]. Friedenreich CM, O'Reilly R, Shaw E, Stanczyk FZ, Yasui Y, Brenner DR, et al. Inflammatory marker changes in postmenopausal women after a year-long exercise intervention comparing high versus moderate volumes. Cancer Prevention Research. 2016;9(2):196-203.
[14]. Node K, Michishita R, Tsuruta T, Shono N, Inoue T. Effect of exercise therapy on monocyte and neutrophil counts in overweight women. The American journal of the medical sciences. 2010;339(2):152-6.
[15]. Libardi CA, De GS, Cavaglieri CR, Madruga VA, ChaconMikahil M. Effect of resistance, endurance, and concurrent training on TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2012;44(1):50-6.
[16]. Farinha JB, Steckling FM, Stefanello ST, Cardoso MS, Nunes LS, Barcelos RP, et al. Response of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers to a 12-week aerobic exercise training in women with metabolic syndrome. Sports medicine-open. 2015;1(1):19.
[17]. Blair SN, Kohl HW, Paffenbarger RS, Clark DG, Cooper KH, Gibbons LW. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy men and women. Jama. 1989;262(17):2395-401.
[18]. Lamina S, Okoye C. Effects of continuous exercise training on white blood cell count in men with essential hypertension. Journal of the Nigeria society of physiotherapy. 2009;17(1):11-20.
[19]. Nicklas BJ, Ambrosius W, Messier SP, Miller GD, Penninx BW, Loeser RF, et al. Diet-induced weight loss, exercise, and chronic inflammation in older, obese adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2004;79(4):544-51.
[20]. Elosua R, Bartali B, Ordovas JM, Corsi AM, Lauretani F, Ferrucci L. Association between physical activity, physical performance, and inflammatory biomarkers in an elderly population: the InCHIANTI study. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2005;60(6):760-7.
[21]. Beavers KM, Hsu F-C, Isom S, Kritchevsky SB, Church T, Goodpaster B, et al. Long-term physical activity and inflammatory biomarkers in older adults. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2010;42(12):2189.
[22]. Zamanpour L, Banitalebi E, Amirhosseini SE. The effect of sprint training and combined aerobic and strength training on some inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in women with diabetes mellitus (T2dm). Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism. 2016;15(5):300-11.
[23]. Abdollahpour A, Khosravi N, Eskandari Z, Haghighat S. Effect of Six Months of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha as Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2017;19(1).
[24]. Murtagh EM, Boreham CA, Nevill A, Hare LG, Murphy MH. The effects of 60 minutes of brisk walking per week, accumulated in two different patterns, on cardiovascular risk. Preventive medicine. 2005;41(1):92-7.
[25]. Morettini M, Storm F, Sacchetti M, Cappozzo A, Mazzà C. Effects of walking on low-grade inflammation and their implications for Type 2 Diabetes. Preventive medicine reports. 2015;2:538-47.
[26]. Kantyka J, Herman D, Roczniok R, Kuba L. Effects of aqua aerobics on body composition, body mass, lipid profile, and blood count in middle-aged sedentary women. Human Movement. 2015;16(1):9-14.
[27]. Pescatello LS, Thompson WR, Gordon NF. A preview of ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal. 2009;13(4):23-6.
[28]. Coker RH, Williams RH, Kortebein PM, Sullivan DH, Evans WJ. Influence of exercise intensity on abdominal fat and adiponectin in elderly adults. Metabolic syndrome and related disorders. 2009;7(4):363-8.
[29]. Gaesser GA, Rich RG. Effects of high-and low-intensity exercise training on aerobic capacity and blood lipids. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 1984;16(3):269-74.
[30]. Ferrer M, Capó X, Martorell M, Busquets-Cortés C, Bouzas C, Carreres S, et al. Regular Practice of Moderate Physical Activity by Older Adults Ameliorates Their AntiInflammatory Status. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1780.
[31]. Irving BA, Davis CK, Brock DW, Weltman JY, Swift D, Barrett EJ, et al. Effect of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat and body composition. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2008;40(11):1863.
[32]. Fax M. Exercise physiology; Translate by A. Chaldan. Tehran. Tehran university publisher; 1997.
[33]. Ednigton E. Physical activity biology; Translate by H. Nicbachat Tehran Samt. 1994:290-2.
[34]. Halle M, Berg A, Northoff H, Keul J. Importance of TNFalpha and leptin in obesity and insulin resistance: a hypothesis on the impact of physical exercise. Exercise immunology review. 1998;4:77-94.
[35]. Lamina S, Okoye C. Effect of interval training program on white blood cell count in the management of  ypertension: A randomized controlled study. Nigerian medical journal: journal of the Nigeria Medical Association. 2011;52(4):271. 
[36]. Suzuki K, Nakaji S, Yamada M, Totsuka M, Sato K, Sugawara K. Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics. Exercise immunology review. 2002;8:6-48.
[37]. Allen SC. Systemic Inflammation in the Genesis of Frailty and Sarcopenia: An Overview of the Preventative and Therapeutic Role of Exercise and the Potential for Drug Treatments. Geriatrics. 2017;2(1):6.
[38]. Visser M, Pahor M, Taaffe DR, Goodpaster BH, Simonsick EM, Newman AB, et al. Relationship of interleukin-6 and
tumor necrosis factor-α with muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly men and women: the Health ABC Study. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2002;57(5):M326-M32.