ریسک فاکتورهای مؤثر بر شیوع بیماری کووید19 در بین کارکنان بهداشتی: یک مطالعه مروری

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی بهداشت حرفه‌ای، دانشکده بهداشت، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: بیماری نوظهور کووید-19 به‌عنوان یک بیماری مرتبط با شغل به‌ویژه برای کادر بهداشت بیان شده است. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی ریسک‌فاکتورهای مؤثر بر شیوع بیماری کووید-19 در کارکنان بهداشتی، انجام شد. 
 روش­کار: در این پژوهش مروری- روایتی مقالات نمایه شده از دسامبر 2019 تا ژانویه 2021 با کلیدواژه‌هایی چون Covid-19 وCoronavirus ، Healthcare و Risk Factor در پایگاه داده­های الکترونیک Web of Science ،PubMed، Scopus و Google Scholar جستجو شدند. براساس نتایج جستجو 22 مطالعه مرتبط با هدف پژوهش، بررسی گردید.
یافته‌ها: ریسک‌فاکتورهای شیوع این بیماری در بین پرسنل بهداشتی را می‌توان به پنج گروه، شامل: ریسک‌فاکتورهای روان‌شناختی، زمینه‌ای، شغلی، اجتماعی و انتقال بیماری تقسیم کرد. پرسنل بهداشتی به‌عنوان یک گروه پرخطر که در مواجهه مستقیم یا غیرمستقیم با بیماران یا مواد عفونی هستند، سهم زیادی در انتقال بیماری دارند. برای مثال، احتمال انتقال از پزشکان به اعضای خانواده 20/8 درصد و به افراد دیگر 25 درصد برآورد شده است. فاصله به‌عنوان عاملی مهم در انتقال بیماری مورد توجه است. فواصل کمتر از 20 سانتی‌متر در معاینات معمول و کمتر از 5 سانتی­متر در معاینات دقیق پتانسیل انتقال بیماری به چشم‌پزشکان را فراهم می‌کند. سن، رعایت نکردن بهداشت دست، بیماری‌های زمینه‌ای و خودایمنی، کیفیت پایین خواب، استرس کاری، کمبود وسایل حفاظتی، حجم بالای کار و تماس نزدیک با بیماران، ریسک‌فاکتورهای انتقال بیماری کووید-19 هستند.
نتیجه‌گیری: پرسنل بهداشتی می‌توانند با رعایت نکات بهداشتی و آموزش آن به بیماران، نقش مهمی در کنترل این بیماری داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Risk Factors of Prevalence of COVID-19 Infection in Healthcare: A Review

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akbar Ahmadi Asour
  • Fatemeh Fasih Ramndi
Ph.D Student, Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Emerging Covid-19 disease has been described as an occupational disease especially for healthcare professionals.  The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors affecting the prevalence of Covid-19 disease in healthcare workers (HCWs).
Materials and Methods: In this review study, indexed studies from December 2019 to January 2021 with the keywords such as Covid-19, Coronavirus, Healthcare and Risk Factor were searched in the electronic databases of Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar. Based on the search results 22 studies were included in the study.
Results: The risk factors for the outbreak of this disease among HCWs can be divided into 5 groups, including psychological, underlying, occupational, social and disease transmission risk factors.  HCWs, as a high-risk group, in direct or indirect exposure to patients or infectious substances, they have a large share in transmitting the disease to others. For example, the probability of transmission from physicians to family members is 20.8% and to others is estimated at 25%. An important factor in the transmission of the disease is distance. Distances <20 cm in routine examinations and <5 cm in detailed examinations by physicians provide the potential for high transmission of the disease to ophthalmologists. Age, lack of hand care, comorbidities and autoimmunity, poor sleep quality, work stress, lack of PPE, workload and close contact to COVID-19 disease have been identified as risk factors for the transmission the disease.
Conclusion: HCWs, can by observing health tips and educating patients, will play an important role in controlling COVID-19 disease.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • coronavirus
  • COVID-19
  • Health
  • Healthcare worker
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دوره 28، شماره 5
آذر و دی 1400
صفحه 634-649
  • تاریخ دریافت: 03 اردیبهشت 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 13 شهریور 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 13 شهریور 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 13 شهریور 1400