بررسی معضلات حقوق مصرف‌کننده مواد غذایی تراریخته از ابعاد سلامتی، اخلاقی و حقوقی

نوع مقاله : مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار حقوق خصوصی، گروه حقوق، دانشکده الهیات و معارف اسلامی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

2 استادیار زیست‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

3 استادیار فقه و حقوق جزا، گروه حقوق، دانشکده الهیات و معارف اسلامی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: خطر گرسنگی و افزایش تعداد گرسنگان در سراسر جهان به دلیل رشد جمعیت جهان و کمبود منابع و مواد غذایی افزایش یافته است. افزون بر رشد جمعیت جهان، تغییرات اقلیمی نیز بر کمبود مواد غذایی تأثیر گذاشته؛ در نتیجه امنیت غذایی به مخاطره افتاده است. از این رو مصرف محصولات تراریخته، معضلات بسیاری را ایجاد کرده است. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی مسائل حقوق مصرف‌کننده مواد غذایی تراریخته از ابعاد سلامتی، حقوقی و اخلاقی صورت گرفته است.
مواد و روش‌ها: تحقیق حاضر یک تحقیق مروری است که با استفاده از کلیدواژه‌های غذا، امنیت غذایی، محصولات تراریخته و سلامتی، مقالات و کتاب‌های فارسی و انگلیسی منتشر و نمایه شده در پایگاه­هایPubMed ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, SID, IranMedex, Magiran به‌صورت جداگانه و ترکیبی، بدون محدودیت زمانی تا انتهای سال 2021 جستجو و پس از بازیابی، بررسی و تحلیل شدند.
یافته‌ها: در این مطالعه مروری، معضلات مواد غذایی تراریخته از ابعاد سلامتی، اخلاقی و حقوقی نسبت به حقوق مصرف‌کننده موردبررسی قرار گرفت تا نشان داده شود که چگونه می‌توان میان حق غذا و حق سلامتی و ایجاد امنیت غذایی تعادلی ایجاد کرد بی‌آنکه اجرای این حق‌ها موجب زیان انسان یا محیط‌‌زیست شود 
نتیجه‌گیری: اصل زیان نرساندن اقتضا می‌کند که دولت­ها در راستای تأمین امنیت غذایی و جلوگیری تولیدکنندگان از سوءاستفاده از حق، نظارت دقیقی بر تولیدکنندگان محصولات و مواد غذایی تراریخته داشته باشند؛ بنابراین تولید گیاهان و مواد غذایی تراریخته نباید موجب زیان مصرف‌کننده و محیط‌زیست پیرامون او شود. علاوه بر این، مصرف‌کننده باید از وجود مواد غذایی تراریخته مطلع باشد تا بتواند حق انتخاب خود را اعمال کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Challenges of Consumer Rights in Genetically Modified Food from a Health, Ethical and Legal Perspective

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Pouresmaeili 1
  • mohammadreza vaezi kakhki 2
  • MAHDI NARESTANI 3
1 Associate Professor, Private Law, Department of Law, Faculty of Theologyand Islamic Studies, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Plant Physiology and Genetics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Jurisprudence and Criminal Law, Department of Law, Faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The risk of starvation and the increasing number of hungry people around the world has increased due to the world's population growth and lack of food and supplies. Climate change, in addition to global population growth, has affected food shortages. As a result, food security is at risk. Therefore, challenges has been paid to Genetically Modified Crops and Genetically Modified Food. The aim of this study was to investigate the health, legal and ethical challenges of transgenic food consumers.
Materials and Methods: This paper is a narrative review; the search was done on articles and books in Persian and English, published and indexed in PubMed ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, SID, IranMedex, and Magiran databases. This search was carried out individually and in combination, with no time limit in published and indexed articles and books until the end of 2021, and after retrieval, they were reviewed and analyzed.
Results: In this narrative review study, the health, ethical and legal challenges of GM food to consumer rights were examined to show how a balance can be struck between the right to food and the right to health and food security.
Conclusion: The Non-Maleficent Ethical Rule requires that governments closely monitor producers of GM crops and foods in order to ensure food security and prevent producers from abusing their rights. Therefore, the production of GM crops and foods should not cause harm to the consumer and the environment around him. In addition, the consumer must be aware of the presence of GM foods in order to exercise his or her choice right.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Genetically Modified Food
  • food security
  • Conflict of Rights
[1]. Parekh, SR. and Gregg, A. Introduction, the GMO Handbook: genetically modified animals, microbes, and plants in biotechnology, Sarad R. Parekh (Editor), Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press Inc; 2004, 6.
[2]. Briefs IS. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops. ISAAA Brief. 2016; 52.
[3]. Briefs IS. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops in 2017: Biotech crop adoption surges as economic benefits accumulate in 22 years. ISAAA Brief. 2017; 53:25-6.
[4]. Briefs IS. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops in 2018: Biotech Crops Continue to Help Meet the Challenges of Increased Population and Climate Change. ISAAA Brief. 2018; 54.
[5]. Lucht, JM. Public acceptance of plant biotechnology and GM crops. Viruses; 2015, 7(8), 4254-4281.
[6]. Bonny, SS. Why are most Europeans opposed to GMOs? Factors explaining rejection in France and Europe. Electronic journal of biotechnology; 2003, 6(1): 7-8.
[7]. Bonny, S. Factors Explaining Opposition to GMOs in France and the Rest of Europe, in "International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products", Robert Eugene Evenson and Vittorio Santaniello (Editors), Cambridge: CABI Publishing. 2004: 170.
[8]. Javadi Amoli, A. Haq va Taklif Dar Islam, Qom: Esra; 2009, 125.
[9]. Pouresmaeili, A. A Comparative Study of the Consumer Rights of Genetically Modified Organism in Iran and the European Union, Tehran: Iran National Science Foundation; 2021 .[In Persian]
[10].    Nouri Tabarsi, H. Mustadrak al-Wasa'il (2nd ed. Vol. 16). Beirut: Dar Al-Ahya Al-Tarath Al-Arabi; 1988 (1408), 16:248.
[11].    Ansari, M; Haji ali, SH. Food Right, Islamic Human Rights Studies; 2014, 3: 137-146
[12].    Ghari S.Fatemi SM, Rezaeian S. State`s Responsibility for Protecting the IPRs and the Food Security of Citizens, Judicial Law Views Quarterly (Law Views); 2018, 83: 157-183; URL: http://jlviews.ujsas.ac.ir/article-1-1086-fa.html.
[13].    Haggui, Faycal. Cost of EU Opposition to Genetically Modified Wheat In Terms of Global Food Security, Ph.D Thesis Submitted to the College of Graduate Studies and Research in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon; August 2004, 12.
[14].    Kulayni, AJ. Al-Kafi. Tehran: Dar Al Kotub Al-Islamiyah Publishing; 1987(1407); 6:287-288.
[15].    Shaykh Tusi, M. Tahdhib al-Ahkam fi Sharh al-Muqni'ah, Tehran: Dar Al Kotub Al-Islamiyah Publishing. 1987; 9:177.
[16].    Horr Ameli, M. Wasa'il al-Shi'ah ila Tahsil Masael al-Shari'a. Beirut: Dar Al-Ahya Al-Tarath Al-Arabi, (1408), 15:91.
[17].    Horr Ameli, M. Wasa'il al-Shi'ah ila Tahsil Masael al-Shari'a. Beirut: Dar Al-Ahya Al-Tarath Al-Arabi; 1988(1408), 9:296.
[18].    Imam Ali, Nahj al-Balagha, Part 1, Sermons 3.
[19].    Aal-Māwardī, Alī. Al-Ahkam al-Sultania w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya, Mavardi, translated by Hosien Saberi, Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi Press; 2004(1383), 405.
[20].    FAO, IFAD and WFP. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015, Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress. Rome, FAO. 2015; Available at: http://www.fao.org/righttofood/publications/publications-detail/en/c/49338, accessed on: 2019/08/11.
[21].    FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019. Safeguarding against economic slowdowns and downturns. Rome, FAO; 2019, 9-10; Available at: https://www.unicef.org/media/55921/file/SOFI-2019-full-report.pdf, accessed on: 2019/08/11.
[22].    Jefferson, Valeria."The Ethical Dilemma of Genetically Modified Food". Journal of Environmental Health. Jul/Aug 2006; 69, 1. ProQuest Health & Medical Complete: 33-34.
[23].    Secretariat, Iranian Capacity Project of Implement the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Biosafety in environmental protection, Tehran: Department of Environment. 2016, 2-3.
[24].    Scandizzo, Stefania. The Labelling of Genetically Modified Products in a Global Trading Environment, in "International Trade and Policies for Genetically Modified Products", Robert Eugene Evenson and Vittorio Santaniello (Editors), Cambridge: CABI Publishing; 2006, 34.
[25].    Tom L. Beauchamp T, Childress J, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012, 150-151.
[26].    Seyed Fatemi, SMG. Biotechnology in the Mirror of Ethics, Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, 2002, 12, 56-72.
[27].    Boer B, Editor. Environmental Law Dimensions of Human Rights. Collected Courses of the Acade; 2015.
[28].   Ebrahimgol, A. 'Right to Food, A Prerequisite for Realization of other Rights', International Law Review. 2009; 25(39): 221-243. doi: 10.22066/cilamag.2010.17388.
[29].   https://www.who.int/governance/eb/who_constitution_en.pdf, Access on: 2020/04/03.
[30].    Abbasi M, Rezaee R, Dehghani G. Concept and situation of the right to health in Iran legal system. Medical Law Journal. 2014; 8 (30):183-199 [Persian].
[31].    Hakimi, Mohammadreza; Hakimi, Mohammad; Hakimi, Ali. Al hayat, Translated by Ahmad Aaram, Tehran: Farhangi Press. 2009(1430). 3: 292-297.
[32].    Kulayni, AJ. Al-Kafi. Tehran: Darol Kutub al-Islamiyah Publishing; 2008(1429). 13:454.
[33].    pouresmaili A, Narestani M, Vaezi kakhaki MR. Conflict of Consumer Rights of Transgenic Foods. Medical Figh Journal [Internet]. 2021Apr.24 [cited 2021May18];12(42):1-19.
[34].    Mohaghegh Damad, S.M. Amirhoseiny, A. The right to consumer pharmaceutical and medical products on training in Iranian law and Islamic Imams, in accordance with the European Union instruments. Journal of Medicine and Cultivation; 2019. 28(Humanities Health), 13-24.
[35].    Mostafavi, SMK. Mae'i rule of jurisprudence, Qom: Institute of Islamic Publication Depended on QomTeachers'Society; 2000 (1421). 299-300.
[36].    Gallani, B. Labelling of genetically modified (GM) ingredients in foods and bevrages, In "Advances in Food and Beverage Labelling". Woodhead Publishing; 2015, 181.
[37].    Halford, Nigel. G. Genetically Modified Crops. London: Imperial College Press: 2003, 72.
[38].    Pouresmaeili, A. A Comparative Study of the Consumer Rights of Geneticcally Modified Organism in Iran and the European Union, Tehran: Iran National Science Foundation; 2019 (1396) 75-88.